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CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES (5)


GRAMMAR EXERCISES


Verbs taking the Gerund and the Infinitive


Verb + the Infinitive

Verb + the Gerund

1. to forget to do sth – not to perform an action as the result of forgetting:


e.g. She forgot to turn off the light.

Она забыла выключить свет.

(= Она не выключила свет.)

to forget doing sth – to forget a past event:


e.g. She forgot inviting me to the wedding and sent me another invitation. – Она забыла, что уже пригласила меня на свадьбу и послала еще одно приглашение.


2. to remember to do sth – not to forget to do:


e.g. Please, remember to turn off the light before leaving. – Пожалуйста, не забудь выключить свет перед уходом.

to remember doing sth – to recall a past event:


e.g. I clearly remember seeing you in the bar on Saturday. – Я отчетливо помню, что видел тебя в субботу в баре.


3. to regret to do sth – to feel sorry about having to do sth negative:


e.g. We regret to inform you that your application has been turned down. – Мы с сожалением вынуждены сообщить вам, что ваше заявление отклонено.


to regret doing sth – to feel sorry about sth already done:


e.g. Now he regrets buying such a large house. – Теперь он жалеет, что купил такой большой дом.


4. to hate to do sth – to dislike what one is about to do.


e.g. I hate to interrupt you but there’s an urgent call. – Извините, что вынужден перебить вас, но поступил срочный звонок.

to hate doing sth – used about a situation that already exists.


e.g. The hotel I am staying at is horrible. I hate staying there. – Гостиница, в которой я остановился, ужасная. Мне очень не нравится там жить.

5. to like to do sth – used to speak about repeated actions or when you find sth good or proper to do:


e.g. Do you like to get up early? / It’s not my favourite job, but I like to wash dishes straight after meals. – Тебе нравится рано вставать? / Это не самое любимое занятие, но я предпочитаю мыть посуду сразу после еды.

to like doing sth – used to speak about repeated actions or when you enjoy doing sth:


e.g. Do you like getting up early? / Helen likes walking in rainy weather. – Тебе нравится рано вставать? / Елена любит гулять в дождь.

6. to stop to do sth – to stop in order to do sth:


e.g. Harry stopped to talk to his neighbour. – Гарри остановился, чтобы поговорить со своим соседом.


to stop doing sth – to no longer do sth:


e.g. Suddenly everyone stopped talking. – Неожиданно все перестали говорить.

7. to go on to do sth – to finish doing sth and start doing sth else:


e.g. After discussing the country’s political system, the professor went on to speak about its economy. – После того, как профессор рассказал о политическом устройстве страны, он стал говорить о ее экономике.


to go on doing sth – to continue doing sth:


e.g. She went on singing although nobody was listening to her. – Она продолжала петь, хотя никто ее не слушал.

8. to mean to do sth – to intend to do sth:


e.g. Sorry, I didn’t mean to hurt you. – Извините, я не хотела вас обидеть.

to mean doing sth – to involve doing sth: e.g. I won't take the job if it means working Saturdays. – Я не соглашусь на эту работу, если это повлечет за собой работу по субботам.

9. to try to do sth – to attempt to do sth, to do one’s best:


e.g. I’ve been trying to contact John all morning. – Я пытаюсь связаться с Джоном все утро.

to try doing sth – to do sth as an experiment:


e.g. I’ve got a terrible headache. – Try taking an aspirin. – У меня ужасно болит голова. – Попробуй принять аспирин.

10. to be afraid to do sth – not to have courage to do sth, to hesitate:


e.g. I am afraid to ask my boss for a pay rise. – Я боюсь (не решаюсь) попросить своего начальника повысить мне зарплату.

to be afraid of doing sth – to be afraid that what is referred to by the Gerund may happen.


e.g. Steve dislikes dogs. He is always afraid of being bitten. – Стив не любит собак. Он вечно боится, что его покусают.

11. sb would prefer to do sth

e.g. I would prefer to speak to you in private. – Я бы предпочел поговорить с вами наедине.


to prefer to do sth rather than do sth else

e.g. He prefers to spend his holiday at the seaside rather than go rafting. – Он предпочитает провести отпуск на море, а не сплавляться по реке.

to prefer doing sth (to doing sth else)

e.g. I prefer working on my own. – Я предпочитаю работать в одиночку.

I prefer driving to being driven. – Я предпочитаю вести машину, а не ехать в ней пассажиром.


30. Translate into Russian:

1. He stopped to exchange a few words with a neighbour. 2. We regret to inform you that your application has been unsuccessful. 3. I like looking round antique shops. 4. I would prefer to stay at home rather than go out in this weather. 5. He clearly remembered giving her the message. 6. I regret saying that you were mistaken. 7. I regret to say that you were mistaken. 8. Greg went on talking, although I had asked him to stop. 9. Having mentioned the main problem, Frieda went on to talk of other, less important matters. 10. Have ever tried driving in London? – I have, and it’s not very pleasant. 11. Applicants should try to answer all the questions. 12. Remember to give my love to your sister. 13. Moving to the North means getting used to Arctic days and nights. 14. I mean to leave that meeting with a new contract.


31. Open the brackets using either the Gerund or the Infinitive.

1. If the Premier’s policy is to succeed, he must try ____________ (to keep) prices low. 2. What do you mean ___________ (to do) about the broken computer? 3. Don’t forget __________ (to wake) me before you leave. 4. Why don’t you try __________ (to use) honey instead of sugar? It’s much healthier. 5. I tried _________ (to take) the pill you gave me but I couldn’t swallow it. 6. Although Will is quite well off, he still regrets ____________ (not/to go) to university. 7. I definitely remember _______________ (you/to borrow) money from me. 8. I’d prefer you ______________ (to work) after office hours tonight. 9. Let’s stop ____________ (to have) something to eat. – Again? I wish you would stop _____________ (to eat) so much! 10. I think I’d prefer ______________ (to go) on holiday to Egypt this year and spend some time visiting historical sites. – Yes, I prefer ___________ (to do) something interesting to just _____________ (to lie) on a beach all day. And I’d prefer _____________ (to go) somewhere warm rather than ______________ (to stay) in Scotland.


32. Complete the sentences, using the Gerund or the Infinitive:

1. Do you remember … last week? 2. Did you remember … last night? 3. Our boss didn’t think we needed … . 4. I think the computer needs … . 5. Perhaps the tenants would prefer not … . 6. Does he/she prefer … to … ? 7. I hope you won’t forget … . 8. A truthful person hates … . 9. His mother is a domineering person. I’d hate … . 10. Having discussed the first item on the agenda, the board of directors went on … . 11. I can’t understand why you go on … if you hate … . 12. You should try … . I’m sure you’ll find it much easier. 13. He may not have succeeded, but at least he tried … . 14. Accepting this invitation means … .



Text 1.

Climbing Out of Poverty: Never Easy, Never Over.



Cross-cultural Notes:


  • 1. professional classes – social groups embracing educated and qualified people in jobs that require special skills and training, especially ones with high social status; the professions – a form of employment that is possible for an educated person and after training: the medical / legal / teaching / nursing profession.



  • 2. Chicago [SI'kQ:gRu] – the third largest US city situated in the state of Illinois ['IlInOI] on Lake Michigan ['mISIgRn]. It is an important industrial and business centre. Its airport, O’Hare, is the busiest in the world.



  • 3. Medicare – the US government’s medical programme for everyone over the age of 65. It is part of the Social Security system. It pays part of the costs of hospitals and offers additional medical insurance to people who pay an amount of money each month.



  • 4. Social Security – the US government payments to help people who are unemployed, poor or old, or who cannot work because they are ill or injured. Money for the payments is provided by taxes on employers and workers.



  • 5. ... her daughter’s desire to join the Navy – the US Navy consists of about 400,000 men and women. More than 80% of all military jobs are open to women.

* * *

For most of her 38 years, Angela Whitiker has been on the outside looking in at the seeming perfection of the professional classes. While the rest of the United States continues to debate the barriers to mobility, Ms. Whitiker has quietly traversed several classes in a single lifetime. She has gone from welfare statistic in the early 1990s to credit-card carrying member of the middle class.

The third of five children, she was born to a mother who was a cook. She didn’t meet her father until she was 10, and she hasn’t seen him since. By 15, she was pregnant with her first child. By 23, she was the mother of five and had worked in a variety of low-paying jobs.

At 26, Ms. Whitiker and her children were living in a crime-burdened neighbourhood. She had become involved with a man who worked as a baggage handler at O’Hare International Airport. He paid the rent and was the father of her fifth child. His paycheck gave her the ability to get into a pre-nursing program at a local community college in Chicago. But the relationship fell apart, and without her boyfriend to pay the rent, she fell further behind.

She wound up in a cellblock of an apartment in the Robert Taylor Homes. Gangs ruled the place. The elevators didn’t work and gunshots were background music. “It was hell,” she would say later. “I wouldn’t want a dog to stay up in there.” Ms. Whitiker vowed from the very first night to get out. She postponed her nursing studies, working at a fast food restaurant and as a security guard.

Then she met Vincent Allen. A police detective, he had a college degree, a nice apartment and a solid middle-class background. They met when they were working as security guards. With Mr. Allen’s encouragement, Ms. Whitiker enrolled in nursing school again, but it was different this time. Or, rather, she was different. She had seen the bottom of the well and never wanted to go back there. Upon finishing nursing school, she was anxious to pass her licensing exam. “It was a step to another life,” she said later.

At first, nursing was like winning the lottery. She was earning enough for the family to move into a four-bedroom apartment in a nice building overlooking Lake Michigan.

Now she is making $83,000 a year, more than Mr. Allen, whom she married a few years ago. She is making more money than anybody she knows. And come payday, everybody needs something, and not just the kids. Relatives need gas money, friends need help with the rent. Even her patients have their hands out. “You got some money to lend me?” one of them, an older woman whose telephone had just been cut off, asked her.

After Medicare and Social Security deductions and her share of the household obligations, groceries, her $500 monthly car payment, loans to relatives, and the debt left over from her previous life, she finds that most months she has little left over. So despite her income, she still shops at the dollar stores in her old neighborhood.

Her job and paycheck say she is middle-class, but what does that mean? She said that when she was on the outside looking in, she never imagined it would mean working three and a half years without a vacation or having an empty dining room waiting for a table and chairs. It never occurred to her that she would be working this hard and still have to choose between paying the phone bill and paying for her daughter’s formal high school party.

“I feel like every corner of my body is being stretched,” she said.

Ms. Whitiker’s ideal of middle-class perfection has two missing pieces: her oldest sons, Nicholas and Willie. Her success came too late to benefit them. Both have spent time in jail on drug convictions, and both have children out of wedlock. She had to make the most painful decision a mother could make to keep her family on her chosen path. She made it clear that neither Willie nor Nicholas was welcome until they cleaned up their lives.

But she still has hope. “I’m a late bloomer,” she says, “and I know it’s not too late for them.”

Ms. Whitiker doesn’t hide her displeasure over her daughter’s desire to join the Navy – mainly because it does not fit the middle-class ideal she has for her children. She sees her daughter studying law.

“I try to talk my kids to go into a profession,” she said. “If you are certified and licensed, nobody can take that away from you.”

But to Nicholas and Willie, her advice is different. “Can’t you see your life is going down the drain, and you are the only one who can save it?” she asks. “You want a quick way out. There is no quick way out. I tried that. It doesn’t work.”


(After Isabel Wilkerson, The New York Times, 2005.)


ACTIVE VOCABULARY


1. relation (countable / uncountable) – связь между двумя и более людьми (предметами, явлениями): e.g. The study found a direct relation between smoking and lung cancer. / a relation (Brit.), a relative (Am.) – родственник // relations – отношения (между людьми, странами, организациями): e.g. international relations; relations between Japan and China. We have very good relations with the local police. // relationship – 1. отношения (между людьми, особенно предполагающие тесную эмоциональную связь): e.g. romantic relationship. My relationship with my boyfriend has lasted six months now. 2. взаимосвязь между явлениями, отношения (менее формально, чем relation): e.g. There is a close relationship between poverty and crime. (Poverty is related to crime.)


2. 'anxious – 1. беспокоящийся, тревожащийся, встревоженный: e.g. I was terribly anxious about the children when they didn’t come home from school in time. 2. стремящийся к чему-либо, желающий чего-либо: e.g. The government is anxious to reassure everyone that the situation is under control. He was anxious for his son to find a job in an investment bank. / anxiety [WNg'zaIRtI] (about) – тревога, беспокойство: e.g. We waited with great anxiety for more news about the flood. There’s a lot of anxiety about the new parliamentary reform.


3. security – безопасность: e.g. When the documents were locked up in the bank vault we had no more anxieties about their security. / the UN Security Council – Совет Безопасности ООН / a security guard – охранник / social security (Brit.), social welfare (Am.) – социальное обеспечение (особенно неимущих слоев): e.g. John has been on social security for two years now.


4. to deduct – вычитать, удерживать: e.g. The cost of the broken glasses will be deducted from your pay. / deduction – 1. вычитание, удержание: e.g. Your gross salary will be $3000 a month, which works out $2200 after all deductions. 2. вывод, (умо)заключение: e.g. What deductions have you made from that, Watson? / to deduceвыводить заключение, делать вывод: e.g. Hercule Poirot deduced that the murder had been committed by a woman.


5. to occur [R'kR:] – случаться, происходить (more formal than to happen): e.g. Police say the accident occurred about 8 a.m. Complications occurred in only 10 per cent of cases. / to occur to sb / it occurs to sb to do sth – приходить в голову кому-либо: e.g. The thought of giving up the project never occurred to Jim. It didn’t occur to me to ask how he had found me. / occurrence [R'kArRns] – 1. случай, происшествие: e.g. Unfortunately, computer errors are a common occurrence. 2. распространение, частота возникновения: e.g. The report noted an increase in the occurrence of lung cancer.


7. background – 1. задний план, фон: e.g. The mountains form a background to this photograph of the family. 2. незаметное положение: e.g. She has a lot of power, but likes to remain in the background. 3. (социальное) происхождение; опыт, подготовка, уровень образования: e.g. We are looking for journalists with a background in economics. The program aims at educating children from disadvantaged backgrounds. 4. история вопроса, подоплека, исходные данные, сведения общего характера: e.g. You'll have to give the lawyer a bit more background information before he can help you.


8. 'perfect – 1. идеальный, совершенный: e.g. The equipment was in perfect condition. / in a perfect world – в идеале: e.g. In a perfect world, each patient should see their doctor daily, but we don’t have the resources. 2. законченный, полный, абсолютный: e.g. I wouldn't like to share a room with a perfect stranger. 3. подходящий во всех отношениях: e.g. The new house is perfect for their growing family. / perfection – 1. идеал, совершенство, безупречность: e.g. Valerie always seeks perfection in her boyfriends. The roast beef was cooked to perfection. 2. (у)совершенствование: e.g. He worked hard at the perfection of his technique.


to be born to sb / a family... – родиться у кого-либо / в семье…

to be pregnant with (a son) / to be pregnant by sb – быть беременной (сыном) / быть беременной от кого-то

to fall apart – распасться (об отношениях)

to wind up – 1. закончить что-либо 2. оказаться в каком-либо месте или положении (обычно о неприятной ситуации)

to enroll in – записаться, поступить (в)

to go down the drain – пойти впустую




COMPREHENSION EXERCISES


33. Paraphrase, translate or explain.

explain: ... Angela Whitiker has been on the outside looking in at the seeming perfection of the professional classes.

translate: ... the rest of the United States continues to debate the barriers

to mobility

explain: She has gone from welfare statistic in the early 1990s to credit-

card carrying member of the middle class.

paraphrase: Ms. Whitiker and her children were living in a crime-

burdened neighbourhood.

paraphrase: His paycheck gave her the ability to get into a pre-nursing

program at a local community college…

paraphrase: … without her boyfriend to pay the rent, she fell further

behind.

explain: he had … a solid middle-class background.

translate: … she was anxious to pass her licensing exam.

translate: And come payday, everybody needs something…

paraphrase: Relatives need gas money…

paraphrase: Even her patients have their hands out.

explain: Her success came too late to benefit them.

translate: She made it clear that neither Willie nor Nicholas was

welcome until they cleaned up their lives.

paraphrase: I’m a late bloomer…

paraphrase: Can’t you see your life is going down the drain…?


34. Answer the teacher’s questions.


HOME ACTIVITIES (5)


35. Translate into English using the Gerund or the Infinitive.

1. Джуди не решалась задавать вопросы, потому что боялась, что над ней будут смеяться. 2. Я точно помню, что рассказал ему все подробности происшествия. 3. Теперь я не жалею, что сказал ему правду. Он попробует принять верное решение. 4. Попробуй добавить в салат оливкового масла – он будет намного вкуснее. 5. Никто из нас не согласится участвовать в проекте, если это будет означать переезд в сельскую местность. 6. После того, как Андрей рассказал нам о своих приключениях в Австралии, он стал показывать фотографии. 7. Денис перестал пропускать занятия, боясь, что его отчислят из университета. 8. Линда остановилась, чтобы посмотреть на рождественскую елку в витрине магазина. 9. Когда Майк был ребенком, он терпеть не мог рано ложиться спать. 10. Я предпочитаю ездить на метро, а не стоять в пробках.


36. Get ready to retell Text 1.

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES (6)


VOCABULARY EXERCISES


37. Paraphrase using the active vocabulary:

1. The possibility that she might be wrong never came to her mind. 2. This sort of incident is an everyday thing. 3. John and Mary invited all the members of their family to the wedding. 4. His silence made me worried as I thought something bad might happen. 5. Angela very much wanted her daughter to go into a profession. 6. After paying taxes and insurance, she has little left for herself. 7. Finding fossils far inland, he came to the conclusion that the area had once been covered by water. 8. Let me give you a bit of information about myself. 9. The Elizabethan age gave plenty of opportunity to enterprising people of all walks of life. 10. It seemed like an ideal gift. 11. He believes that his new job is ideal for him. 12. When Fred took a training course for teenagers, he had no time to hang about town with his friends. 13. Mrs. Dobson couldn’t come to terms with the fact that all her efforts to give her son an education had turned out to be useless.


38. a) Complete the sentences with the words and word combinations from the box. Learn the words and word combinations from the box.

cholesterol [kR'lestRrOl] – холестерин

germ [dGR:m] – болезнетворная бактерия

molecule ['mOlILkju:l] – молекула

microbe ['maIkrRub] – микроб

out of touch


blood pressure

are at the root of

take refuge in

protective effects

risk factors

diet


quit

luxuries

survival

single

healing

priorities


focuses on

premature

steadily

spiritual

approach

cardiovascular


self-destructive

connection

well-being

significantly

fortunately

Love Is Real Medicine

Loneliness fosters cardiovascular disease. Fortunately, there’s an antidote.


A 61-year-old executive was in the midst of a divorce when he was stricken last spring, and he had fallen ______________ (1) with friends and family members. The man’s doctor advised him to change his __________ (2), start exercising and __________ (3) smoking. He also prescribed drugs to lower cholesterol and ___________________ (4). It was sound advice but the patient discovered that he needed to do more. He joined a support group and reordered his ______________ (5), placing relashionships at the top of the list instead of the bottom. His health has improved _____________ (6) since then, and so has his outlook on life.

Medicine today __________ primarily ___ (7) drugs and surgery, genes and germs, microbes and molecules. Yet love and intimacy are ______________ (8) what makes us sick and what makes us well. Connections with other people affect not only the quality of our lives but also our _____________ (9). Study after study find that people who feel lonely are many times more likely to get ___________________ (10) disease than those who have a strong sense of ______________ (11) and community. In part, this is because people who are lonely are more likely to engage in __________________ (12) behaviors. Patients _________________ (13) cigarettes, food, alcohol or drugs.

________________ (14), love protects your heart in ways that we don’t completely understand. Researchers studied almost 10,000 married men and found that those who answered “yes” to the simple question – “Does your wife show you her love?” – had ________________ (15) less chest pain. Men and women with heart disease who were _________ (16) and lacked confidants were three times as likely to have died after five years. In all the studies, the _________________ (17) of love were independent of other ______________ (18).

Awareness is the first step in _____________ (19). When we understand the connection between how we live and how long we live, it’s easier to make different choices. Instead of viewing the time we spend with friends and family as ___________ (20), we can see that these relationships are among the most powerful determinants of our _____________ (21) and survival. We are hard-wired to help each other. Science is documenting the healing values of love, intimacy, community, compassion, forgiveness, altruism and service – values that are part of almost all ______________ (22) traditions as well as many secular ones. Seen in this context, being unselfish may be the most self-serving ____________ (23) to life, for it helps free both the giver and recipient from suffering, disease and ______________ (24) death. Rediscovering the wisdom of love and compassion may help us survive at a time when the world so badly needs it.

(After Dean Ornish, M.D., Newsweek, 2005.)


b) Match the following words with their definitions.


1.

premature ['premetSR]

a.

an extremely close personal relationship

2.

to heal

b.

a person you trust and can discuss your secrets and private feelings with

3.

executive

c.

to make a person or part of the body healthy again (formal)

4.

drug

d.

a feeling of sympathy and caring for someone who is in a bad situation

5.

surgery

e.

a person who receives something (formal)

6.

'intimacy

f.

developing or happening before the natural or proper time

7.

community

g.

medicine or substance one takes for pleasure or excitement

8.

confidants ['kOnfILdWnt]

h.

medical treatment in which a doctor cuts open someone’s body

9.

awareness

i.

a senior manager in a business or other organization

10.

determinants

j.

not connected with or controlled by a church, not religious

11.

hard-wired

k.

consideration of the happiness and the good of others before one’s own

12.

compassion

l.

the feeling that you belong to a group and that this is a good thing

13.

altruism ['WltruLIz(R)m]

m.

behavior caused by your genes, rather than learnt from experience

14.

secular ['sekjulR]

n.

something that decides, fixes, settles, or limits

15.

recipient [rI'sIpIRnt]

o.

knowledge or understanding of a subject, issue or a situation


c) Find the English for

способствовать развитию чего-либо; сердечнососудистые заболевания; противоядие; перенести удар (приступ); перестать общаться с…; понизить уровень холестерина; артериальное давление; здравый, разумный совет; пересмотреть приоритеты; хирургия; находить утешение в алкоголе; факторы риска; осознание; быть запрограммированным; общность; тесная связь, близость; сострадание; умение прощать; помощь, услуга; духовные традиции; светский; безвременная смерть; избавить от болезней.


d) Answer the questions:

1. What did the doctor advise his 61-year-old patient after a heart attack?

to avoid doing sth


2. What did the doctor insist on?


to change one’s lifestyle

to start exercising

3. What did the patient worry about?


to fall out of touch with ...

4. What was the doctor concerned about?


to lower sb’s cholesterol and blood pressure

5. How did the patient manage to improve his health?

to be able / to join a support group and ...

6. What is he grateful to the support group members for?

to help sb / to change one’s outlook on life

7. What does medicine focus on today?

to prescribe... / to study...

8. What kind of disease are lonely people likely to get?

to be prone / cardiovascular disease

9. What kind of self-destructive behavior do lonely patients take refuge in?

to abuse sth (злоупотреб-лять чем-либо)

10. What did the researchers find out?

to succeed in / to prove

11. What enables people to make a proper balance between personal relationships and work?

to understand the connection between... / to enable

12. Why are family and friendly relationships considered to be powerful determinants of our well-being and survival?

to be hard-wired ...

13. What values are considered to be an integral part of most spiritual and secular traditions?

to be certain ...

14. What is seen as the most self-serving approach to life?

to be unselfish / to be seen as

15. What may help us survive?

to rediscover sth


HOME ACTIVITIES (6)


39. Translate into English. 

1. Несмотря на то, что родственники считали Джессику и Тома идеальной парой, их отношения распались. 2. Руководство фирмы стремится держать ситуацию под контролем. 3. Вокруг премьер-министра стояли сотрудники службы безопасности. 4. Полицейский инспектор пришел к выводу, что кража была совершена одним из членов семьи. 5. Резолюция Совета Безопасности ООН направлена на защиту окружающей среды. 6. Неожиданно Стелле пришло в голову, что она ничего не знает о семье и происхождении своего нового приятеля. 7. Опыт работы в полиции помог Дженни писать детективные романы. 8. Известно, что Чосер родился в семье торговца вином. 9. Дугласа считали талантливым архитектором, и никто не ожидал, что он окажется безработным и брошенным своей семьей. 10. В идеале все люди должны иметь доступ к бесплатному здравоохранению и образованию.

40. Read the text Brave New World and get ready to answer the questions (see exercise 45).