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Table C19

Veterinary services

Significance of Overall Potential Impacts: MODERATE

Potential Impacts


Potential Consequences

Mitigation Required


Possible human illness

Ingestion of meat products containing hormones and other chemicals.

Lost work and income.

Organic methods of livestock husbandry could be used; minimal application of only necessary drugs.

Only approved drugs and hormones should be used but even these could have some long term, and yet unknown, effects on humans.

EU has a ban on Canadian beef due to the use of growth hormones (market protection ?) but no evidence of adverse effects on humans.

Soil and water contamination.

Insecticides used in diptanks.

Contaminated soil and water not useable for cultivation Potable water or water for irrigation is contaminated;

downstream aquatic ecosystems affected.

Proper containment and disposal of diptank liquids to avoid soil and water contamination.

Probable Residual Impact Assuming Full Mitigation: NONE

Annex D

Impacts, Causes, Consequences and Mitigation

Rural Non-Agricultural Activities

Table D1

Non-Renewable Resource Extraction Industry: Sand and aggregate quarrying for road building that will directly benefit agriculture and agriculture related industries. Materials also to be used for construction as it relates to agriculture and agriculture related activities. All stages are considered including planning, site, operation and decommissioning. The major concerns with the extraction industry include: i) loss of biophysical and cultural features; ii) water quality losses; iii) water extraction; iv) noise, dust and vibration from operations; and, v) aesthetics.

Potential Direct Impacts

Potential Indirect Impacts


Mitigation Required

Residual Impacts to be Expected

Loss of important biophysical features or archaeological sites

Loss of educational and scientific values

Loss of natural heritage, biodiversity and cultural heritage

Careful siting of quarry; no quarry allowed. Mitigation will be difficult since quarries must be sited where suitable materials are found.

No impacts if quarry not allowed; where quarry materials are scarce and no alternative available, residual impacts could be high

Loss of agricultural land

Food production losses;

Loss of jobs and income

Ensure that important agricultural lands are protected from quarry siting;

Ensure comprehensive compensation for farmers.

Profitable quarrying opportunities will not likely be halted by agricultural activities. Food production losses will likely occur but they will be relatively minor.

Full compensation probably would not be achieved.

Water quality

During quarrying fine material runoff into surface water

Modification / loss of aquatic habitat with negative effect fish populations and species mix; loss of potable water to downstream users.

Containment of quarry materials and waste and effective disposal of same.

Some containment may be possible but there will remain some fine material gravitating into surface waters.

Water quantity

Depending upon quarry material and purpose of materials but large quantities of water may be required for washing material (e.g. for producing washed stone)

Water losses could be detrimental to source water body ecosystem; returned water results in poor water quality (see above)

Incorporation of a closed system to ensure water is re-used. Sediment loads disposed of effectively (e.g. land fill)

With a proper system, water losses could be minimal (after extracting initial amount of water to be used in closed system).

Safety threat

Injury or death

Quarries must be fenced and warnings to the public posted; decommissioning when abandoned quarries present a hazard as a result of steep quarry wall cuts and unstable materials.

Full mitigation likely to be difficult to achieve.

Without full mitigation, site after decommissioning could pose a threat to the safety of people and livestock.

Noise, dust and vibrations threatens public health

Lost work days

Lost income

Timing of operations, dust control.

Can not eliminate essential components of the operation. Some residual impact but hopefully only to the nuisance level and not threatening to public health.


Loss of visitors to area, particularly if area is one with tourist attractions.

Loss of local employment, reduction in socioeconomic conditions.

Screening during operations and landscaping site upon decommissioning. Mitigation will not be easy to achieve due to high costs of landscaping.

There will always be evidence of a former quarrying operation.

Table D-2

Potential Direct Impacts

Potential Indirect Impacts


Mitigation Required

Residual Impacts to be Expected


Biodiversity loss

Loss of species and their habitats

Sustainable management.


Population dynamics altered

Size limits through net mesh size restrictions will lead to an imbalance in overall population structure, the full consequences of which are unknown.

Possible loss of production;

Altering of aquatic ecosystem

Sustainable management.

Small residual impact

Aquatic ecology altered

Undesirable species may dominate;

Loss of desired production in terms of quantity and quality

Sustainable management.


Loss of species

Job losses; reduction in rural economy

Biodiversity loss; more unfavourable species may fill available niche

Sustainable management.

No residual impact

Table D3

Manufacturing: The major environmental effects of the manufacturing sector will be related to effluents and emissions. As well, location of manufacturing activities, and indirectly the pressure that they may place on natural resources will also be of concern.

Potential Direct Impacts

Potential Indirect Impacts


Mitigation Required

Residual Impacts to be Expected

Contaminated surface and ground water from effluents

Aquatic ecosystem losses; biodiversity losses; economic losses to fisherfolk; contaminated domestic water supplies

Ill health leading to societal costs; lost work days

Appropriate waste water treatment to meet national standards; adoption of holding facilities and recycling; alternative processes. Mitigation easy if regulations enforced.

Some water contamination for manufactures with effluents, will occur

Air pollution through air emissions

Vegetation damage

Ill health leading to societal costs; lost work days.

Appropriate technology to meet stack emission standards.

Ambient air quality deteriorates (cumulative effect)

Loss of productive land and land for other uses through solid waste disposal

Vegetation damage;

Biodiversity losses;

Water contamination (ground and surface)

Food production losses;

Health costs and loss of potable water supply

Ensure that waste disposal occurs in environmentally safe and designated areas;



Biodiversity and other biophysical losses as a result of location

Siting of plant on environmental grounds.


Table D4

Trade. There are basically no impacts after eliminating areas of trade such as those that deal with tobacco, alcohol, and firearms, from loan eligibility.

Potential Direct Impacts

Potential Indirect Impacts


Mitigation Required

Residual Impacts to be Expected


Table D5

Transport: This sector includes road, air, water transport and pipeline transfer (railways are excluded). Major impacts to be considered relate to, maintenance of vehicles, air, water and soil pollution.

Potential Direct Impacts

Potential Indirect Impacts


Mitigation Required

Residual Impacts to be Expected

Improper disposal of used lubricants, and the improper handling of fuels, as well as traffic accidents, can result in water and soil contamination

Polluted water (ground and surface) not available for domestic or agricultural use;

Damaged aquatic ecosystems

Increased costs for domestic and agricultural waters

Appropriate handling and storage of used oils and lubricants – recycling where possible;


Increased consumption of fossil fuels increase air pollution

Contribution to greenhouse gases; global warming contribution

Fuel efficient engines

Economics dictates the type of vehicle and fuel used; residual impact will be the same

Annex E: Summary of NGO Roundtable Discussion


Environmental Component

Discussion / Results

Need Action

Agriculture - general

Natural ecosystems


Agriculture has to work within the framework of the natural system; everyone wants to use the natural ecosystem and we don’t know how to strike a proper balance; the same holds true for agriculture and the forests.

Need effective planning and need to stick to this planning

Need alternative approaches to agriculture.


Soil, water, food

Faunal species now in Red Book as a result of past pesticide application.

Contamination; effect on animals

Suggestion that banned substances are still finding their way into the country and farmers are unaware of the dangers with such chemicals.

Limit amounts applied; organic agriculture


Soil, water, food

Human health

Contamination; human health; there is no control over the type and amounts of fertilizers imported

Claim that farmers use too much fertilizer and people are getting sick.

Limit amounts applied; organic agriculture


Source of seed

Formerly relied on native seeds but now many are imported and don’t know of their true origin (GMO?)

Need to further develop indigenous seeds


Grazing inside the forests as well as cropping

Endemic species are being removed both legally and illegally

Social development.

Forest diseases can harm animals

Forests remain the same in size but their composition and stocking has been reduced.

Need a recovery of the forests to improve social conditions in the communities.

Need to take an holistic approach to resource management.

Need controlled grazing programs.


Water quality; water quantity

Water quality of Lake Sevan

Irrigation contaminates water and reduces water supply

Quality is OK because farmer don’t have the money for chemical inputs.


Crop production

Human health

Old systems are broken

Water in old irrigation systems is a risk to human health

General downstream problems

Need to repair old systems and


Grasslands, soil, forest and forest plants

Improved breeding


Overgrazing is a serious problem and leads to soil compaction and erosion. Animals trample plant life in the forests.

Farmers go further afield to collect forage.

Need better quality animals to reduce the pressure on limited grazing lands.

To combat overgrazing, use traditional feeds.

Take the feed to the animals.

Penned livestock.


Plant ecology

Need to return to pasturing of high areas as in Soviet times. This will bring back the desirable native species and eliminate weeds which have invaded the high pastures.

Quality animals

Grasslands, soil, forest and forest plants

Better quality animals would result in fewer animals to achieve same production rates but would reduce overgrazing problems and other environmental impacts.


Diseased animals; human illness

Farmers do not have any central place where animals can be slaughtered and the consumer has confidence that the meat will be safe.

Consider establishment of abbatoirs in communities

Fish farming

Ecosystem protection

Concerned about introduced species escaping from farms and competing with indigenous and endemic species.

Need tighter controls.

Community development


Should focus on forest development

Requires special treatment

If focus on the individual farms the communities will look after themselves

Irrigation, water and roads are priority


Must protect indigenous and endemic germplasm for future potential development.

Need a policy on GMOs – currently these are not under any kind of control.


Socio-economic and scientific

Farmer do not have any information on GMOs so don’t know what to be aware of.

Animal waste

Human health

Animal wastes must be managed effectively.

Fish farming

Endemic species; water quality

Exotic fish introduction to fish farming. These fish can escape into the natural environment and compete for habitat with indigenous and endemic species. They can also feed on indigenous species.

Organic farming

All components


All components

Environment will be better protected if farmers were made aware of the environmental consequences of their actions (and particularly if they can be shown alternative ways that are cost saving without sacrificing productivity)

Training of farmers (my suggestion is to provide the training to the extension workers who will pass on sustainable agricultural methods and environmental management needs to farmers.


Water quality

Needed to efficiently utilize manure and to reduce farm costs through replacement of chemical fertilizers

Best to conduct biogass on a collective basis

None suggested


Too difficult to enforce.

Nature reserves


Farmers intrude into nature reserves.

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