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Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие содержит систематизированный минимум языкового и речевого материала по темам «Архитектура», «Строительные материалы и конструкции», «Дизайн интерьера». Пособие включает в себя лексический минимум по темам, адаптированные и аутентичные тексты по истории архитектуры и строительства, а также систему заданий и упражнений к ним.
Цель данного учебно-методического пособия – подготовить будущих специалистов в сфере дизайна и строительства к восприятию и переработке специальной информации из англоязычных источников. К текстам прилагаются задания, обеспечивающие усвоение тематического словарного минимума, позволяющие осуществить опосредованное управление процессом извлечения ключевой информации из иноязычного профессионального текста; а также речевые упражнения, обуславливающие развитие устной речевой деятельности студентов.
ЧАСТЬ I. ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО НАПРАВЛЕННЫЕ ТЕКСТЫ
ПО ТЕМЕ «ARCHITECTURE»
VOCABULARY TO THE TOPIC
Прочитай слова и переведи предложения. Выучи слова.
TEXT 1. THE HOUSE
Прочитайте текст об истории архитектуры и ответьте на вопросы.
1. Man has always been a builder. The kind of a house he built depended upon the climate, upon his enemies, and upon the building materials at hand. The first houses in many parts of the world were made of wood, for in those days the greater part of the earth was covered with forests. Men tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the skins of animals or with leaves and grass. So, a tent or hut, was the first house of the primitive people who lived where there was much wood.
In other regions the most convenient building material was stone. Men began building houses out of stone very long ago. Although they were built without cement, the remains of a few of them still exist.
It appears that the most ancient homes on the territory of Russia were earthen houses. One such home was discovered near Voronezh in 1927. It consisted of a shallow hole of oval shape. The floor was covered with limestone slabs. The roof had been conical and stood on poles covered by branches or animal skins. Such dwelling existed in that part of the country in the Upper Paleolithic Period (from 40,000 to 12,000 years ago).
- What materials were the first houses in many parts of the world made of?
- How did men build a tent or a hut?
- What was the most convenient building material in other regions?
- When did men begin building houses out of stone?
- How were the stone houses built?
- What were the most ancient homes on the territory of Russia?
2. The ancient Egyptians built very simple houses, by present standards. Having dried the bricks in the sun, they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof. The roof was flat because there was very little rain in Egypt. Although their buildings were simple in construction, the Egyptian art of building was very beautiful. Their pyramids and monuments, sphinxes and palaces arouse our admiration to this day. An important part in the history of building has been played by the column, and it was ancient Egypt that gave the world its first lesson in the art of making columns. The Greeks learned much from Egypt. But they didn’t borrow the flat roof. They built the slanting roof because there was much rain in their country. The Greeks made the roof slant in two directions from the middle. They also improved on Egypt’s columns and soon became the teachers of the world in column making.
The Romans, in turn, learned much from the Greeks. First of all they borrowed the slanting roof and the columns. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.
- How did ancient Egyptians build their houses?
- Why was the roof of Egyptian houses flat?
- What was the Egyptian art of building?
- Do their pyramids and monuments arouse our admiration to this day?
- What lessons did ancient Egypt give the world?
- Why did the Greeks build a slanting roof?
3. In ancient Russia architecture flourished for the first time in Kiev Russ. Unfortunately only a few of the church buildings of that period have remained, among them the famous Cathedral of St. Sophia, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1037 to commemorate the victory over Pechenegs. The churches of that time were strong buildings with thick walls and small windows. They often had to serve as fortresses against enemy invasions. During the Second World War the finest ancient architectural monuments were destroyed and great effort has got into restoring them.
- Where did architecture flourish for the first time in Ancient Russia?
- What church building of that period has remained?
- How did the churches of that time look like?
4. In the Middle Ages in Europe numerous wars between different nations caused great damages to the houses of crowded Medieval towns. Therefore many monarchs and nobles built castles as a form of defence. Those castles had very strong walls, narrow windows and projecting fortifications.
- What kind of homes did many monarchs build in the Middle Ages?
- How did the castles of the Middle Ages look like?
5. The Renaissance, which was a European movement, lasted roughly from the 14th to the 17th century. During this Period, art and sciences underwent great changes. In architecture these changes were marked by a return to classical forms and proportions of ancient Roman buildings.
- What changes did architecture undergo during the Renaissance?
6. Buildings of the 19th century are characterized by the use of new materials and by a great diversity of architectural styles. From the end of the 18th century iron and steel became widely used as alternatives to wood, for by that time many countries experienced shortage of this material. Later the Industrial Revolution brought mass-production of building parts which were manufactured at a factory and then simply assembled at a site.
- What materials became widely used from the end of the 18th century?
- What did the Industrial Revolution bring later?
- Where were the building parts manufactured and assembled?
7. The 20th century is notable for widespread use of steel – reinforced concrete. Huge reinforced concrete units manufactured in heated factory premises are brought to the site which becomes something like an assembly shop. This technique has many advantages over other building methods. First of all it cuts the labour needed for building by 60 to 70 % and extends the building season what is very important for countries where winter lasts for many months. Furthermore the duration of building is greatly cut. All this makes the building process less expensive and much less laborious.
Architecture of the 20th century is characterized by very high buildings – particularly skyscrapers – and by great diversity of styles which completely differ from those in the past.
- What is the 20th century notable for?
- Where are reinforced concrete units brought?
- Does this technique have many advantages over other building methods?
- What is the architecture of the 20th century characterized by?
NOTES TO THE TEXT
- pole – столб
- damage – повреждение
- heated factory premises – отапливаемое заводское помещение
- assembly shop – сборочный цех
- skyscraper – небоскрёб
Задание 1. Подберите английский эквивалент к русскому слову.
Задание 2. Назовите английский эквивалент к русскому слову в скобках.
1. The kind of a house he built (зависел от) the climate.
2. The first houses in many parts of the world (были сделаны из) wood.
3. Men (связывали) together the tops of several trees.
4. So a tent, or (хижина), was the first house of the primitive people.
5. Men began building houses (из камня) very long ago.
6. The most ancient homes on the territory of Russia were (землянки).
7. The floor was covered with (известняковыми плитами).
8. Having dried (кирпичи) in the sun, they put up four walls, and above this they placed a (плоскую крышу).
9. Sphinxes and palaces (вызывают восхищение).
10. Ancient Egypt gave the world its first lesson in the (искусство изготовления колонн).
11. They built a (наклонную) roof because there was much rain in their country.
12. The arch added much (прочности) and beauty to the Romans’ buildings.
13. In ancient Russia architecture (процветала) for the first time in Kiev Russ.
14. The cornerstone of Cathedral of St. Sophia was laid in 1037 (в ознаменование) the victory over the Pechenegs.
15. During the Second World War the finest ancient architectural monuments (были разрушены).
16. Those (крепости) had very strong walls, (узкие) windows and projecting (укрепления).
17. Arts and sciences (подвергались) great changes.
18. Buildings of the 19th century are characterized by a (большим разнообразием) of architectural styles.
19. (Железо) and steel became widely used as alternatives to (дереву).
20. Many countries experienced (нехватку) of this material.
21. Building parts were manufactured at a factory and then simply (собирались) at a site.
22. Huge (железобетонные) units are brought to the site .
23. This technique has many (преимуществ) over other building methods.
24. It (сокращает) the labour needed for building.
25. Furthermore the (продолжительность) of building is greatly cut.
26. It makes the building process (менее дорогостоящим) and much (менее трудоёмким).
Задание 3. Прочитайте словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык.
To depend on quality, in the middle of the wood, to tie together, the top of a wooden house, to appear on the horizon, the middle of the day, a shallow hole, to have no shape, a flat ground, to put up a tent, a stone wall, to do something in turn, the strength of the material, thick wood, to serve as an explanation, to destroy the city, great effort, advanced workers, steel and concrete, numerous units, to manufacture tubes, to assemble houses, the North Region, to be made of bricks, a new flat, to arouse interest, in the wrong direction, shortage of water, the assembly of aggregates, the duration of the crises, a number of advantages, to extend the road, to heat the house, expensive means, huge scale, to play an important part, to take part in the concert, to take place, to be damaged by storm, a damaged car, an overcrowded bus, a crowded street.
TEXT 2. EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания после текста.
Architecture is the art which makes buildings beautiful to look at as well as useful. A man who designs buildings and makes the plans for them is called an architect. He has to think not only of what he wants the building to look like when it is finished, but also what it is to be used for. He must not forget the sort of material to be used in the building. This may be stone, brick, wood or steel and concrete.
There have been many different styles or kinds of architecture in the past and there are many different styles today in different parts of the world.
The oldest monuments which are met within architecture are the colossal pyramids of Egypt most of which were constructed about 6,000 years ago.
The pyramids are large triangular buildings which were placed over the tombs of Egyptian kings. The best known of the pyramids are a group of three built at Giza south of Cairo. The largest of these is 482 feet high. They tell us of the advanced civilization of ancient Egypt which is much spoken about even in our days.
It was a country which had expert mathematicians and engineers, where astronomy and philosophy were known and studied.
The country was rich in hard and durable stone, but poor in timber and metal, so that the main material used for construction was granite, and this was the reason for the durability of the pyramids.
Large blocks of stone were transported over long distances by land and water, and placed into position with the help of the most primitive equipment. That was done by slaves working for thirty or forty years. All this great amount of work was done, masses of material and a large territory sometimes of about 52,000 square meters were used, only for protecting the body of a dead king and constructing a dwelling place for his happy life in the “other world”.
NOTES TO THE TEXT
- design – проектировать
- triangular – треугольный
- tomb – могила
- durable – прочный
- timber – лесоматериал
- slave – раб
Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
- Are there many different styles of architecture today in different parts of the world?
- What are the oldest monuments, which are met within architecture?
- When were the most of the Egyptian pyramids constructed?
- How do the pyramids look like?
- Where were the pyramids placed?
- What pyramids are the best known?
- Of what do the pyramids tell us?
- In what material was the country rich?
- What was the main material used for construction?
- What was transported over large distances by land and water?
- How were large blocks of stone placed into position?
- Why was done all this great amount of work?
Задание 2. Подберите соответствующую дефиницию к английским словам.
TEXT 3. FROM THE HISTORY OF HUMAN DWELLING
Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы после каждой части.
1. Most of the time of a modern man is spent within the walls of some building. Houses are built for dwelling; large buildings are constructed for industrial purposes; theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. The purposes of modern buildings differ widely, but all of them originate from the efforts of primitive men to protect themselves from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies. Protection was looked for everywhere. In prehistoric times men looked for protection under the branches of trees; some covered themselves with skins of animals to protect themselves from cold and rain; others settled in caves.
- What are the modern buildings built for?
- Why did primitive people begin to build their huts?
- Where did primitive people look for protection?
2. When the Ice Age had passed, Europe remained very cold, at least in winter, and so the people of the Old Stone Age had to find some warm and dry places to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves, dwelling places that storm and cold couldn’t destroy. On the walls of their caves ancient people painted pictures. Such decorated caves are found in Europe, Asia and Africa.
When man began to build a home for himself, caves were imitated in stone structures, trees were taken as a model for huts built of branches, skins were raised on poles and formed tents.
Primitive stone structures, huts and tents are the earliest types of human dwellings, they are lost in the prehistoric past but serve as prototypes for structures of later historic times.
- What place did the people of the Old Stone Age choose to shelter from bad weather?
- What did ancient people paint on the walls of their caves?
- Were caves imitated in stone structures?
- Were trees taken as a model for huts?
- What are the earliest types of human dwellings?
3. In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families, they began to feel a need to have a number of different kinds of houses in one place. At first the difference was mainly in size – the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses had to be built higher than they were in the country. A typical town house consisted of a shop opening on the street where the man did his work or sold his goods, with a kitchen behind and a bedroom above.
- Did men begin to feel a need to have a number of different kind of houses?
-What was the difference at first in?
- What difference grew up, when men began to build towns?
- Did houses in towns have to be built higher than they were in the country?
- What did a typical town house consist of?
4. In the country ordinary people lived in simple one-storey cottages which didn’t differ much from the mud and stone huts of an earlier age.
The rich people in the country, on the other hand, built huge castles with thick walls and narrow windows. These castles were built not only as dwellings, but also to stand up to enemy attack and to be strong bases in time of war. The earliest houses of which anything is known are those of ancient Egypt. They were built of bricks dried in the sun. Some of them were built around a courtyard or garden with rooms opening into it.
- What houses did ordinary people in the country live in?
- What kind of houses did the rich people in the country build?
- Of what material were the earliest houses of ancient Egypt built?
- Were they built around a courtyard or a garden?
5. Greek houses, too, had a courtyard in the middle and round their courtyard ran a covered walk, its ceiling supported by pillars. There were special women’s quarters, usually upstairs on the second storey.
In Rome bricks were used for building and houses were often finished with plaster over bricks on both inside and outside walls. The centre of family life was a garden- courtyard, surrounded by columns and with rooms opening out into it.
The earliest houses in Britain were round, built of wood or wicker basket work plastered over with clay. In the centre of the house was the hearth and light came through the hole in the roof above it and through the door because there were no windows.
- Did Greek houses have a courtyard in the middle?
- Did a covered walk run round the courtyard?
- Was the ceiling of a covered walk supported by pillars?
- What material was used for building in Rome?
- Were houses often finished with plaster over bricks?
- Of what material were built the earliest houses in Britain?
- What was in the center of the house?
- How did the light come into early English houses?
TEXT 4. IMPRESSION OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания после текста.
1. Styles are probably similar in most European countries today. This is because now architects have no opportunities the had in the past. They are seldom asked to design buildings like wonderful churches and cathedrals of the Middle Ages. Architects today have to design schools, hospitals and huge blocks of flats and offices. If they are asked to make plans for houses, these are usually all alike or nearly alike.
2. Boxes – that’s what a good deal of modern architecture reminds of. The blocks of flats in our big towns are huge boxes, whether the fronts and sides are dining-hall completed with modern kitchen.
3. Many modern buildings, especially the blocks of flats and business offices, are like big boxes. They do look like boxes from the outside, but when we go inside, we find them very well planned for their purposes. An architect today has to be an engineer too. The best modern buildings help us to live and work in comfort. They save plenty of unnecessary work .There is central heating, for example, instead of the dusty open fires we used to have, with coal to be carried up long stairs and ashed to be carried down.
4. A lot of interesting work has been done in Scandinavia, and, of cause there is the work of Le Corbusier in France and it’s interesting to see what American architects are doing now. You may know the work of the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. He designed the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. It was designed to resist earthquakes and it proved so strong that it did. It was one of the few buildings in Tokyo that it didn’t fall in the terrible earthquake of 1923.
Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.
- What can you say about the styles of modern architecture?
- Are the architects today often asked to design buildings like wonderful cathedrals?
- What buildings have architects today to design?
- Are the plans for houses usually all alike?
- What does a good deal of modern architecture remind you of?
- Have architects done a very good work in designing new schools?
- Where is the building work done?
- Are modern buildings very well planned for their purposes?
- Do the best modern buildings help us to live and work in comfort?
- What did the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright design?
- Was the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo designed to resist earthquakes?
- Did it fall in the terrible earthquake of 1923?
Задание 2. Одно из самых прекрасных зданий мира.
Seven creations of human hands are considered to be wonders of the world. Now it is possible to enlarge this number including one or more extraordinary building either in Russia or abroad you consider to be a wonder. Say a few words about it giving information on:
- when and where it was built;
- who it was designed by;
- how it looked before and how it looks now;
- construction materials which were used;
- how the building was used before and how it is used now;
- why you think it should be considered one of the wonders of the world.
Try to design your own building which could be one more wonder.
Задание 3. Составьте сообщение по следующим темам.
1. Your impression of modern architecture.
2. Old buildings in a city.
3. City of my dream.
ТЕКСТ 5. STONES OF PYRAMIDS
Тайна египетских пирамид всегда привлекала внимание учёных. Но у всех у них всегда были разные мнение о них. Прослушайте один из докладов учёных на эту тему.
Доклад, который вы прослушали, был сделан одним из учёных, которые упоминаются ниже. Прослушайте текст ещё раз, затем прочитайте мнения разных учёных и назовите имя того из них, который сделал доклад “Stones of Pyramids”
Daniel S. is sure that Egyptian pyramids are nothing but real mountains covered with limestone slabs.
Joseph D. came to the conclusion that limestone slabs of the pyramids were produced synthetically just on the construction site and so there was no need of transporting them.
Robert F. believes that large blocks of stone were transported over long distances by slaves and placed into position with the help of the most primitive equipment.
Louis V. thinks that Egyptian pyramids were constructed only thanks to the help of visitors from other planets.
Выскажите своё мнение о различных объяснениях по поводу происхождения Египетских пирамид.
- What explanation is the most widespread;
- What is the most unrealistic, to your opinion;
- What explanation do you personally support.