Контрольная работа №1
I. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-его лица единственного числа глагола в Present Simple;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
1. The teacher points at the blackboard when he wants to explain something.
2. Computers and lasers are being widely introduced at plants and factories.
3. Great changes in people’s lives and work were brought about by the scientific and technological progress.
4. The electronic industry produces several types of minicomputers.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.
1. This instrument is a key tool of the atomic age and is used for studying radioactivity.
2. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.
3. Joint efforts of people throughout the world make it possible to achieve some progress in environment protection.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.
1. The Americans say that in the USA the buildings are taller, the cigars are longer, the cars are bigger and the girls are prettier than anywhere in the world.
2. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams your brain will work much more efficiently.
3. The sooner you take your medicine the better you will feel.
4. This room is not so comfortable as that one on the first floor.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений.
1. We didn’t have any time to discuss his new invention.
2. There is future for microelectronics in automobiles.
3. You should take any bus that goes from here towards the railway station and get off at the third stop.
4. Some students have come, the rest are still taking their exams.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видо - временные формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. It was difficult to translate the text without a dictionary.
2. They had no lectures last week.
3. During the course of study our students will carry out their practical work in well-equipped laboratories.
4. At higher schools specialization generally begins in the third year.
VI. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America, commonly called the United States or simply America, is a federal republic comprising 50 states and the District of Columbia. The total area is 9.4 mln. sq. km. The United States today hold the leading position in the capitalist world. The USA is situated in the southern part of North America and is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and the Pacific ocean in the west. The Atlantic Ocean is of great importance to the USA for its sea communications with Europe, Africa and South America. The largest ports are on the Atlantic Coast.
The Americans are really a nation of nations, and the USA is the country where all principal languages are spoken. The United States of America is a federation of states which was established by the Constitution in 1787. Each state has its own government and its own capital city. The Federal Government is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial, and these three branches are represented respectively by Congress, the President and the Supreme Court. In other words, all legislative powers are vested in a Congress of the United States, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The executive power is vested in a President, who holds office for 4 years.
The USA has large reserves of all the more widely used minerals except tin. The country produces enough of some minerals to meet all its own needs and to ship to other counties as well. The American West occupies 40 per cent of US territory and has 17 per cent of the population, produces 14 per cent of crude oil, and 10 per cent of natural gas. It ranks first in the production of uranium, nickel, copper and molybdenum ores. Half of working population of the USA is employed in the sphere of industry and half in services. Dining halls, cafeterias, restaurants and other units offer daily 160 mln dishes or 20 per cent of all the food produced in the USA. Agriculture is one of the most important fields of economy tightly bound with industry, trade and the services within the framework of the agro-industrial complex.
At present the Union comprises 50 states administratively united by the Federal Government in Washington. Its only industry is a government. As the nation’s capital and a seat of the Federal Government, it is the heart of the country.
Контрольная работа №2
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (В) обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций.
А) 1. If Martin does not win, it will be the end of his sport career.
2. He liked music, but the piece she was playing had no melody for him.
3. It is the development of robots that will solve some very difficult problems of industry.
4. While Jack was sitting biting his nails, we were working out a plan to cover up our traces.
B) 1. Thousands of messages from all parts of the body are sent to and from the brain.
2. Some students will be permitted to take exams in December.
3. He was not expected to say that.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Students interested in computer engineering enter technological institutes.
2. She didn’t pay any attention to the ringing telephone.
3. Deeply shocked I left him.
4. An article discussing the new system of school education appeared in all newspapers.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. As telegraph wires couldn’t be hung over the ocean, cables had to be laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean.
2. Judges must be free of any political bias.
3. The development of new materials doesn’t mean that old materials should lose their significance.
4. They were allowed to continue their research.
5. Cactus plants needn’t much water. That’s why they can grow in the dry desert.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык.
London is an ancient city. It grew up around the first point where the Roman invaders found the Thames narrow enough to build a bridge. They found a small Celtic settlement there and by A.D. 300 they had turned it into a sizable port and an important trading center with a wall which enclosed the homes of about 50 000 people.
Some 9 million people now live in London and its suburbs, and the city covers an area of 620 square miles, making it one of the largest of the world’s capitals. One reason for its size is that the English people like to live in small houses and have small gardens. As a result, less than 5 000 people live in the City of London, while more than half a million come here to work in the daytime. Today London is the capital of Great Britain and is also the seat of the Royal Family, the Parliament, the major administrative bodies and scientific institutions.
The Houses of Parliament stand on the bank of the river Thames at Westminster Abbey. Actually it is one building but it is called “Houses” as it consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It was set up in the 13th century. At one end of the Houses of Parliament there is a tower with a large clock. The largest bell, known as Big Ben, chimes in the hour.
Westminster Abbey was a monastery built in the 8th century. It is one of the best examples of the Early English architecture. The kings and queens of England are buried there. Many great statesmen, writers and poets are also buried there.
In the center of London there is one of the most beautiful squares- Trafalgar Square which was named so to commemorate Nelson’s victory in the battle of Trafalgar. There is a monument in the center known as Nelson’s Column.
In the vicinity of Trafalgar Square is Whitehall which is now a street of government offices. Not far from Whitehall is Downing Street. Number 10 Downing Street is the residence of the Prime Minister of England. The Cabinet meets there. One must mention the British Museum. It is one of the most extensive and valuable museums in West Europe. It was founded in 1753. It also comprises the National Library. There are other numerous museums and galleries displaying interesting finds from all parts of the world and from all stages in the development of nature, man and art. There are also two large opera houses, the National Theatre and 50 other theatres. Monuments of past greatness are everywhere in London. .
Контрольная работа №3
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.
1. They spent their vacation at the same village where they had lived many years ago.
2. Isn’t Professor Blake going to be invited to make a speech?
3. As French was constantly spoken around him, he soon became familiar enough with the language to understand a great deal of what was said.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. The authorities found it necessary to close all schools.
2. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air.
3. That computers and industrial robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training.
2. I had to get up early yesterday.
3. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education.
4. She has just passed her History exam.
5. Our company is doing well now.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. You can easily bring the people you need together electronically.
2. Have you still got the journal you showed me some days ago ?
V. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения; обратите внимание на то, что в них просьба или побуждение выражены с помощью глагола to let.
1. Let us know when they will go on a hike.
2. Let me do it myself.
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива, герундия и причастия в предложении.
1. The books written by Charles Dickens give us a realistic picture of the 19th century England.
2. Watching football matches may be exciting enough, but of course it is more exciting playing football.
3. I hate to bother you, but the students are still waiting to be given books for their works.
VII. Переведите на русский язык.
The University of Oxford may be said to date from 1214, when the first charter was granted by the Pope, but long before this date there had existed in the town a number of religious communities and these were the real beginning of the University.
First there were only about 60 chapels and a student was living and studying at one of these chapels learning theology, logic and rhetoric. Oxford University of today is a federation of 48 colleges, each largely independent.
The governing body of Oxford University is the congregation of 1500 men- the assembly of all the members of the colleges. The colleges admit students, organize programs, students’ work and residence, laboratories, libraries and term examinations and confers degrees. Forty colleges of 48 admit only men, two colleges are mixed and six colleges are only for women.
A person studying for a degree at a British University is called a graduate. B.A. or B.Sc. stands for Bachelor of Arts or of Science, the first degree given after a period of 3-4 years of specialized study at a University. M.A. or M. Sc. denotes Master of Arts, or of Science, a higher degree, usually conferred after a year’s post-graduate study.
Social changes have certainly transformed Oxford considerably. Some of the traditions have gone in the past. However in spite of all these changes Oxford has not lost its distinctive character.
Контрольная работа №4
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что субъектный и объектный инфинитивный обороты большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения № 1).
1. He is believed to be of different opinion on this question.
2. Our teacher hates us to be late.
3. The members of the committee were expected to come to an agreement.
4. He ordered the documents to be checked carefully.
5. He ordered the secretary to check the documents carefully.
6. The river is believed to be suitable for navigation.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.
1. At last the excitement died down, the captain having assured the passengers, that there was no longer the slightest danger.
2. Having introduced the new words, the teacher asked one of the students to read them.
3. The key having been lost, they could not enter the cottage.
III.Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.
1. Should he fail his examination he will be allowed to try again in a month.
2. Had we come to the station a minute earlier we should not have missed the train.
3. You could stay in my place provided you promise to leave no mess.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык текст.
THE ATTACK ON BRITAIN’S ENVIRONMENT
Most of the western nations have the same basic environmental problems, but they take different forms in each country. Here you can read about some of the dangers facing Britain’s environments.
One of Britain’s environmental successes has been the control of air pollution, especially in London. Thirty years ago hundreds of people died every year from the dreadful London smogs. Since then London and many other cities have become smokeless zones, areas where no coal fires are allowed. But now the increase in traffic is threatening serious air pollution in our cities again.
However, the commonest air pollution comes from the cigarette smoke which pollutes many public places, like cinemas, pubs and restaurants. Though cigarette advertisements are not allowed on TV or radio, you can still see them on posters in cinemas and in newspapers and magazines. The advertisements don’t tell you that doctors believe cigarettes cause 30.000 deaths in Britain every year.
Traffic and aircraft can cause serious noise pollution. Air-crafts are very noisy when they take off and the noise spreads over a wide area. Heathrow airport, near London, is the busiest airport in the world. Planes are only allowed to take off and land at Heathrow between six in the morning and eleven at night, but during the day fifty planes take off and land there every hour.